~ Lennard-Jones potential

The Lennard-Jones potential is a model of the interatomic potential between two neutral atoms or molecules.

$$ U(r) = 4\epsilon \left(\left(\frac{\sigma}{r}\right)^{12} - \left(\frac{\sigma}{r}\right)^6\right) ,$$

where $\epsilon$ is a characteristic energy, which is specific for the atoms we are modeling. $\sigma$ is a characteristic length.1

The contributions come from the two main interactions:

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